Welcome!

Weblogic Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Michael Meiner, Michael Bushong, Avi Rosenthal

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo

@CloudExpo: Article

Cloud Computing Reference Architectures, Models and Frameworks

Making sense of the many reference architectures, models and frameworks for cloud

Reference ‘Things’
A Reference Architecture (RA) “should” provide a blueprint or template architecture that can be reused by others wishing to adopt a similar solution. A Reference Model (RM) should explain the concepts and relationships that underlie the RA. At Everware-CBDI we then use the term Reference Framework (RF) as a container for both. Reference architectures, models and frameworks help to make sense of Cloud Computing.

Unfortunately, such formality is absent from the various reference architectures, models and frameworks that have been published for Cloud Computing; these frequently mix elements of architecture and model, and then apply one of the terms seemingly at random.

In developing the CBDI-Service Architecture and Engineering Reference Framework (SAE) in support of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) Everware-CBDI separated out various parts as shown in figure 1. We developed a detailed RA for SOA and a RM for SOA, with particular emphasis on a rich and detailed Meta Model for SOA and a Maturity Model for SOA. We also developed a detailed process and task decomposition for SOA activities.

But the RF is easily generalized, as shown in figure 1, where the various elements could be applied to any domain, and explicit references for example to “SOA Meta Model” or “SOA Standards” etc., can be removed.

Generalized Reference Framework

Figure 1 – Generalized Reference Framework

The benefit of this approach is that elements of the framework can then be mapped to each other in different ways to support alternative perspectives such as different usage or adoption scenarios, or the viewpoint of an individual participant or organization. Whereas most of the Cloud Computing Reference architectures, models and frameworks proposed today apply to a single perspective.

Current Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, Models and Frameworks
As discussed there are many frameworks and models to choose from. It is not my intention to detail and critique them all individually. Credit must go to NIST who have already done much of that in their 2010 Survey of Cloud Architecture Reference Models.

We may classify Cloud reference models as one of two styles, either

Analysis of the these shows that they typically contain,

  • Roles – that would be better placed in the Organization section of an RF

  • Activities – which would be part of the Process Model

  • Layered Architecture – which would be part in the Reference Architecture

Used this way, the generalized RF in figure 1 becomes a useful tool to analyze proposed Cloud Computing Reference architectures, models and frameworks in terms of understanding better what they actually contain, and a basis for development of an enterprise specific framework.

Everware-CBDI recommend that is more useful to model the capabilities required for Cloud Computing rather than to list them all as activities - as that may imply processes and tasks which is not always the case. Across the industry capability modeling is rapidly becoming the de facto standard approach to business design, and it seems highly appropriate to use the technique in planning Cloud frameworks. Using this technique capabilities are separated from the processes that use them and from roles that possess them, and consequently mapped in different ways to show different scenarios. The capability model would be in the RM section of the RF and should be used extensively in disciplines such as roadmap planning, process improvement, technology planning, service management etc.

A useful source of capabilities is provided by the Cloud Computing Reference Model/Architecture in The Role of Enterprise Architecture in Federal Cloud Computing published by the American Council for Technology.

Figure 2 takes the various elements from these different architectures, models and framework and places them into a generic RF. The intention here is not to reinvent the wheel, but consolidate the elements contained across the different reference architectures, models and frameworks for Cloud Computing into a unified framework.

Figure 2 - Cloud Computing Elements Placed in Generic Reference Frameworks

Figure 2 - Cloud Computing Elements Placed in Generic Reference Frameworks

Elements highlighted in green are usually covered by existing Cloud Computing reference architectures, models and frameworks. These focus primarily on the operational state of the life cycle, and the implementation and deployment architectures.

Mapping
Once the various elements have been placed into their appropriate part of the RF, then you can start mapping them to suit different scenarios. For example activities in the process decomposition can be mapped against roles – either organizational roles or people roles - perhaps using RAEW, as shown in Table 1.

Table Mapping Process Activities to Roles

Table 1 – Mapping Process Activities to Roles

At a high level, table 1 may appear a bit obvious, but at a more detailed level it helps to understand where and by whom these activities will be performed in your organization, or how it might differ in specific scenarios from the proposed reference architectures mentioned so far.

In some scenarios it may be required that the cloud consumer performs certain cloud management activities not just the provider. Whilst the cloud provider may be required to provide the necessary management capabilities, both the consumer and provider perform management activities.

Hence mapping capabilities to role in table 2 is another useful exercise, understanding who provides and who uses various capabilities. Whilst the NIST, IBM and other reference architectures do show this, as mentioned earlier their view is focused primarily on the operational state, and on the mapping of capabilities required in the operational infrastructure. As table 2 shows the span of responsibility and capability is very much wider than the operational perspective!

Table Mapping Capabilities to Roles

Table 2 – Mapping Capabilities to Roles

Recommendations
The value of a reference framework is to provide a consistency in such aspects as terminology, deliverables and governance across an organization. To understand the totality of the task and to manage the adoption in a proactive manner rather than allowing uncontrolled experimentation. This permits sensible reuse across the whole spectrum of capabilities and avoids the necessity for each enterprise to reinvent the wheel, and to make mistakes that could have been avoided.

I recommend organizations

  • Build their own reference framework. This should be applicable to their

    1. Current and planned maturity states for cloud computing. See the Everware-CBDI research note on Cloud Computing Maturity Model

    2. Primary role(s) – as provider, consumer, broker, etc

  • Expect to customize public domain reference framework materials to suit their specific purpose

  • Consider how they will address those sections not covered by public domain reference framework materials (the pink areas in Figure 2)

  • Consider how the capability requirements change when viewed from a purely cloud consumer perspective which may be the case when there is just tactical use of public cloud, to that of more enterprise-wide usage involving private cloud, and perhaps integration of public, private, and non-cloud apps (see Service Portfolio Planning and Architecture for Cloud Services for an enterprise perspective)

Recommended Resources

More Stories By Lawrence Wilkes

Lawrence Wilkes is a consultant, author and researcher developing best practices in Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Enterprise Architecture (EA), Application Modernization (AM), and Cloud Computing. As well as consulting to clients, Lawrence has developed education and certification programmes used by organizations and individuals the world over, as well as a knowledgebase of best practices licenced by major corporations. See the education and products pages on http://www.everware-cbdi.com

@ThingsExpo Stories
Organizations planning enterprise data center consolidation and modernization projects are faced with a challenging, costly reality. Requirements to deploy modern, cloud-native applications simultaneously with traditional client/server applications are almost impossible to achieve with hardware-centric enterprise infrastructure. Compute and network infrastructure are fast moving down a software-defined path, but storage has been a laggard. Until now.
Digital Transformation is much more than a buzzword. The radical shift to digital mechanisms for almost every process is evident across all industries and verticals. This is often especially true in financial services, where the legacy environment is many times unable to keep up with the rapidly shifting demands of the consumer. The constant pressure to provide complete, omnichannel delivery of customer-facing solutions to meet both regulatory and customer demands is putting enormous pressure on...
The best way to leverage your CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at CloudEXPO. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audienc...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that All in Mobile, a mobile app development company from Poland, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. All In Mobile is a mobile app development company from Poland. Since 2014, they maintain passion for developing mobile applications for enterprises and startups worldwide.
"Akvelon is a software development company and we also provide consultancy services to folks who are looking to scale or accelerate their engineering roadmaps," explained Jeremiah Mothersell, Marketing Manager at Akvelon, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
JETRO showcased Japan Digital Transformation Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo® at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. The Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) is a non-profit organization that provides business support services to companies expanding to Japan. With the support of JETRO's dedicated staff, clients can incorporate their business; receive visa, immigration, and HR support; find dedicated office space; identify local government subsidies; get...
The current age of digital transformation means that IT organizations must adapt their toolset to cover all digital experiences, beyond just the end users’. Today’s businesses can no longer focus solely on the digital interactions they manage with employees or customers; they must now contend with non-traditional factors. Whether it's the power of brand to make or break a company, the need to monitor across all locations 24/7, or the ability to proactively resolve issues, companies must adapt to...
"We view the cloud not as a specific technology but as a way of doing business and that way of doing business is transforming the way software, infrastructure and services are being delivered to business," explained Matthew Rosen, CEO and Director at Fusion, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo (http://www.CloudComputingExpo.com), held June 7-9 at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that the upcoming DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO New York event will feature 10 companies from Poland to participate at the "Poland Digital Transformation Pavilion" on November 12-13, 2018.
As data explodes in quantity, importance and from new sources, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and cloud environments grow with it. Managing data includes protecting it, indexing and classifying it for true, long-term management, compliance and E-Discovery. Commvault can ensure this with a single pane of glass solution – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enter...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that ICC-USA, a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances, will exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO | DXWorldEXPO. DXWordEXPO New York 2018, colocated with CloudEXPO New York 2018 will be held November 11-13, 2018, in New York City. ICC is a computer systems integrator and server manufacturing company focused on developing products and product appliances to meet a wide range of ...
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smart...
Major trends and emerging technologies – from virtual reality and IoT, to Big Data and algorithms – are helping organizations innovate in the digital era. However, to create real business value, IT must think beyond the ‘what’ of digital transformation to the ‘how’ to harness emerging trends, innovation and disruption. Architecture is the key that underpins and ties all these efforts together. In the digital age, it’s important to invest in architecture, extend the enterprise footprint to the cl...
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
Headquartered in Plainsboro, NJ, Synametrics Technologies has provided IT professionals and computer systems developers since 1997. Based on the success of their initial product offerings (WinSQL and DeltaCopy), the company continues to create and hone innovative products that help its customers get more from their computer applications, databases and infrastructure. To date, over one million users around the world have chosen Synametrics solutions to help power their accelerated business or per...
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.
We are seeing a major migration of enterprises applications to the cloud. As cloud and business use of real time applications accelerate, legacy networks are no longer able to architecturally support cloud adoption and deliver the performance and security required by highly distributed enterprises. These outdated solutions have become more costly and complicated to implement, install, manage, and maintain.SD-WAN offers unlimited capabilities for accessing the benefits of the cloud and Internet. ...
In an era of historic innovation fueled by unprecedented access to data and technology, the low cost and risk of entering new markets has leveled the playing field for business. Today, any ambitious innovator can easily introduce a new application or product that can reinvent business models and transform the client experience. In their Day 2 Keynote at 19th Cloud Expo, Mercer Rowe, IBM Vice President of Strategic Alliances, and Raejeanne Skillern, Intel Vice President of Data Center Group and ...
Bill Schmarzo, author of "Big Data: Understanding How Data Powers Big Business" and "Big Data MBA: Driving Business Strategies with Data Science," is responsible for setting the strategy and defining the Big Data service offerings and capabilities for EMC Global Services Big Data Practice. As the CTO for the Big Data Practice, he is responsible for working with organizations to help them identify where and how to start their big data journeys. He's written several white papers, is an avid blogge...
Founded in 2000, Chetu Inc. is a global provider of customized software development solutions and IT staff augmentation services for software technology providers. By providing clients with unparalleled niche technology expertise and industry experience, Chetu has become the premiere long-term, back-end software development partner for start-ups, SMBs, and Fortune 500 companies. Chetu is headquartered in Plantation, Florida, with thirteen offices throughout the U.S. and abroad.