Welcome!

Weblogic Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Michael Meiner, Michael Bushong, Avi Rosenthal

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Containers Expo Blog, @BigDataExpo

@CloudExpo: Article

Findings on Database Management | @CloudExpo #Cloud #IoT #BigData

Technical decisions around data persistence are hard, which is why we surveyed 583 IT professionals

Technical decisions around data persistence are hard, which is why we surveyed 583 IT professionals on everything from current DBMS and ORM usage to modern database engines' data structures and access patterns to storing data on a mobile device.

The demographics of this survey are as follows:

  • 69% of these respondents use Java as their primary programming language at work.
  • 68% develop primarily web applications.
  • 66% have been IT professionals for over 10 years.
  • 45% work at companies whose headquarters are located in Europe, 27% in the USA.
  • 44% work at companies with more than 500 employees, 19% at companies with more than 10,000 employees.

Give the key findings below a read and let us know what you think.

Oracle, MySQL, and SQL Server Remain Head And Shoulders Above the Rest; Oracle and MySQL Remain Neck-and-Neck
The two most mature commercial DBMS offerings (Oracle and MySQL) are used in production by 51% and 49% of respondents, respectively-significantly ahead of the third-ranked DBMS (SQL Server, at 34%). The top three, and the tight race between the top two, have not changed in years, among our survey respondents as well as on the DBMS ranking aggregator dbengines.com. The nearest NoSQL challenger, MongoDB, remains a distant fourth in production environments.

NoSQL - Especially Document-Oriented - DBMS Adoption Is Significantly Greater in Nonproduction Environments
Non-production environments are more friendly to less mature and less thoroughly supported database management systems and also more likely to be affected by desire to optimize for structural fit and ease of access. In production, where data stores are often managed by specialist non-developers, factors other than developer experience and optimal match between data processing and storage and retrieval algorithms weigh into DBMS selection more heavily. NoSQL and generally less mature and/or less supported offerings should therefore be more popular in non-production environments. DBMSes that implement simpler storage models well-suited to lightweight prototyping - especially, therefore, document-oriented DBMSes - should gain an extra boost in development environments.

Accordingly, the gap between production and non-production usage is greatest for the two most mature commercial DBMS offerings: Oracle (at 51% in production vs. 37% in nonproduction) and SQL Server (34% in production vs. 25% in non-production), and the gap between the most popular NoSQL offering in production (MongoDB, at 20% adoption) and the least popular of the top three (SQL Server, at 34%) enters within the survey's margin of error in non-production environments (where MongoDB enjoys 25.4% adoption vs. SQL Server's 24.6%).

MongoDB's (static-schema-free) document orientation, familiar JSON-like document format (ordered lists supporting a variety of types), and widespread connector availability make it easy to set up without heavyweight data modeling and relatively straightforward to use for many less-data-intensive applications without cramping application architecture or code. Indeed, many non-relational stores are easier to spin up quickly than a full-power RDBMS. Some benefits of the relational model (especially integrity enforcement) are less relevant in nonproduction environments, where updates don't always need to propagate across all entities.

Note: of the top three DBMSes, only MySQL enjoys greater adoption in non-production vs. production environments. MySQL is especially likely to be many developers' default nonproduction RDBMS, presumably because it is popular, open source, mature, familiar, and supported by a strong community. (For the importance of familiarity in developers' preference for a particular data persistence technology, see the upcoming section on matching storage model to data structure.)

Applications Are Almost as Likely to Use Two Storage Models as One
Developers may use more than one storage model in different applications with no reference to the work done by the application; variety by developer speaks more about the human than about the technology. But variety of storage models within a single application indicates "polyglot" persistence - that is, how many storage models are used to persist data where technical and business needs overlap. Among our respondents, nearly as many respondents typically use two storage models in their applications (38%) as use one (40%). This result confirms that "NoSQL" is better understood as "Not Only SQL" because the most popular storage model (given DBMS and query language usage data) remains relational. Based on DBMS adoption data, the second most popular storage model by user count is probably document-oriented; but because other storage models (especially column-oriented, graph, and key-value) are particularly well suited to analytical processing of many data rows, further research is required to discover storage model usage by data volume. In any case, the near-parity between one and two storage models per application indicates increasing interest in matching persistence mechanism to the structures of data to be persisted.

Matching Storage Model to Data Structure: Modeling Graph Data
Graph structures do not fit the relational model comfortably. In a relational database, most (Shannon) information is stored in the columns and rows of each table; the schema is a technical construct designed to enforce data integrity, make the data model more legible, and make the querying model more efficient; not to encode more information. In a graph, however, most information is stored in the structure of the nodes and the edges; additional information about nodes and edges is treated as metadata. Yet many real-world entities are most naturally represented as graphs: social, travel, and trade networks; packet routes; control flows; etc. Storing graph structures in tabular storage is inelegant and inefficient even at first, static only glance; but the problem gets worse in a dynamic setting. Because a graph's computational complexity may diverge wildly from its combinatorial complexity, reducing a graph to a relational schema (e.g.,  two-column mapping tables that relate a row in one table to a row in another - that is, modeling nodes as columns and edges as rows in a new table) may work far better for some algorithms than for others (in ways that are not immediately obvious from the graph itself).

Nevertheless, three factors encourage developers and DBAs to store data that is naturally modeled as a graph in a relational DBMS: first, the maturity of relational DBMSes; second, the simplicity and familiarity of SQL (which 90% of respondents use regularly); and third, the availability and maturity of powerful object-relational mappers (ORMs) that make relational data easily accessible (often with automatic and highly effective optimizations) from application code.

Accordingly, only a small minority (20%) of respondents persist data that is naturally modeled as a graph in a specialized graph DBMS. Further, more respondents store naturally-graph data in a relational database without explicit modeling of edges as rows (39%) than with node-node mapping tables (31%). We expect this distribution to change as graph DBMSes and query languages grow more familiar, as tooling ecosystem around these DBMSes approaches the maturity of ORMs, as inefficiencies introduced by storage-structure mismatch grow more expensive as graph data volume increases, and as use cases (and corresponding storage and retrieval algorithms) grow more varied.

Two possibly linked correlations are also worth noting. First, the largest chunk of respondents who store graphs in a relational database without explicit modeling of edges use Oracle (25%)-probably the most mature and most thoroughly optimized RDBMS. Second, the largest chunk of respondents who store graphs in relational database WITH node-node mapping tables use MySQL (24%), which is also the only RDBMS that gains popularity in non-production vs. production environments. This difference may be a function of both the greater likelihood that MySQL will be used for experimental purposes - where graph problems, insofar as conceptually farther from actuarial use (for which relational databases are a more natural fit), are more likely to appear.

Matching Processing Approach to Storage Model: Use and Enjoyment of Orms
Most developers use SQL (90%) but the relational algebra does not naturally capture object-orientation. Objects do not fall into Venn diagrams; but objects and relational tables do share enough structure that, for many simple (few-join) access patterns, the so-called object-relational impedance mismatch does not cause catastrophic performance or integrity loss. Accordingly, object-relational mappers (ORMs) are not only widely used, but also preferred by a majority of developers. In response to our question, "What persistence-related technology do you most enjoy working with?" 58% of respondents answered that they most enjoy working with ORMs. Of these, 70% specifically enjoyed working with Hibernate -  probably a function of both Hibernate's maturity and also our respondents' heavy focus on Java. Although the tail of most-enjoyed data persistence technologies was quite long (26 distinct technologies), Spring Data emerged as the most popular comprehensive data access framework by far (16%).

Reasons Developers Enjoy Working with a Data Persistence Technology
Just under two-thirds of all respondents who named the persistence-related technologies they enjoy working with also specified why they enjoyed working with those technologies. Grounded-theoretic "bucketing" analysis yielded seven (somewhat overlapping) reasons to enjoy a persistence technology (listed in order of popularity): ease of use, simplicity, adherence to standards, familiarity, performance, high level of control, and scalability. The most popular reason by far was ease of use (34%), followed by simplicity in distant second (21%). The top four reasons relate more directly to developer experience than to outcomes (such as performance and scalability), as the wording of the question ("enjoy") indicated. Additional research is required to determine how developer experience relates to persistence-related technology selection, especially because many less-familiar (NoSQL) technologies are optimized for scalability and general performance for certain use cases.

Handling Scale: Data Is Partitioned as Frequently as It Is Not, But This Is Often Successfully Made Invisible to Developers
Modern storage engines, across all storage models, are highly optimized for current hardware, access patterns, and network performance. Theoretically massive inefficiencies of the relational storage model sometimes dominate the advantages offered by a higher degree of maturity among RDBMSes, although newer engines store data in structures that are less narrowly tuned to read-heavy loads using slow (spinning) physical media than (for example) B+ trees. But as Big Data strategies aggressively drive data storage and processing needs, data scale becomes increasingly difficult to manage.

To keep performance and availability high, data is often partitioned on physical and logical lines. Among our survey respondents, 38% partition data in some way (vertical, horizontal, or functional) vs. 40% who do not - a difference within the survey's margin of error (5%). Two research follow-ups would prove interesting: first, what specific data volumes (or velocities), application requirements, and infrastructure constraints drive what kinds of partitioning; and second, which storage models are more likely to require partitioning (although application constraints presumably affect both choice of storage model and partition size/need). It would appear, however, that distributed data techniques designed to manage CAP trade-offs are often effective: 22% of respondents - most of whom are developers and not DBAs -  were not even aware of whether or not their databases were partitioned - a sign that, for nearly a quarter of developers, physical splitting of data had no visible impact on their development work.

For more information on Database and Data Persistence Tools and Techniques, please visit: https://dzone.com/guides/data-persistence-2

More Stories By John Esposito

John Esposito is Editor-in-Chief at DZone, having recently finished a doctoral program in Classics from the University of North Carolina. In a previous life he was a VBA and Force.com developer, DBA, and network administrator. John enjoys playing piano and looking at diagrams, and raises two cats with his wife, Sarah.

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Evatronix will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Evatronix SA offers comprehensive solutions in the design and implementation of electronic systems, in CAD / CAM deployment, and also is a designer and manufacturer of advanced 3D scanners for professional applications.
As businesses evolve, they need technology that is simple to help them succeed today and flexible enough to help them build for tomorrow. Chrome is fit for the workplace of the future — providing a secure, consistent user experience across a range of devices that can be used anywhere. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, will take a look at various options as to how ChromeOS can be leveraged to interact with people on the devices, and formats th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Taica will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Taica manufacturers Alpha-GEL brand silicone components and materials, which maintain outstanding performance over a wide temperature range -40C to +200C. For more information, visit http://www.taica.co.jp/english/.
Organizations do not need a Big Data strategy; they need a business strategy that incorporates Big Data. Most organizations lack a road map for using Big Data to optimize key business processes, deliver a differentiated customer experience, or uncover new business opportunities. They do not understand what’s possible with respect to integrating Big Data into the business model.
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities – ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups. As a result, many firms employ new business models that place enormous impor...
Amazon is pursuing new markets and disrupting industries at an incredible pace. Almost every industry seems to be in its crosshairs. Companies and industries that once thought they were safe are now worried about being “Amazoned.”. The new watch word should be “Be afraid. Be very afraid.” In his session 21st Cloud Expo, Chris Kocher, a co-founder of Grey Heron, will address questions such as: What new areas is Amazon disrupting? How are they doing this? Where are they likely to go? What are th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dasher Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dasher Technologies, Inc. ® is a premier IT solution provider that delivers expert technical resources along with trusted account executives to architect and deliver complete IT solutions and services to help our clients execute their goals, plans and objectives. Since 1999, we'v...
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp emp...
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM has been named “Diamond Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st Cloud Expo, which will take place on October 31 through November 2nd 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, California.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale, a leading provider of systems and services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale has been involved in shaping the computing landscape. They've designed, developed and deployed some of the most important and successful systems and services in the history of the computing industry - internet, Ethernet, operating s...
Infoblox delivers Actionable Network Intelligence to enterprise, government, and service provider customers around the world. They are the industry leader in DNS, DHCP, and IP address management, the category known as DDI. We empower thousands of organizations to control and secure their networks from the core-enabling them to increase efficiency and visibility, improve customer service, and meet compliance requirements.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM has been named “Diamond Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st Cloud Expo, which will take place on October 31 through November 2nd 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, California.
Join IBM November 1 at 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and learn how IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Cognitive analysis impacts today’s systems with unparalleled ability that were previously available only to manned, back-end operations. Thanks to cloud processing, IBM Watson can bring cognitive services and AI to intelligent, unmanned systems. Imagine a robot vacuum that becomes your personal assistant tha...
In a recent survey, Sumo Logic surveyed 1,500 customers who employ cloud services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). According to the survey, a quarter of the respondents have already deployed Docker containers and nearly as many (23 percent) are employing the AWS Lambda serverless computing framework. It’s clear: serverless is here to stay. The adoption does come with some needed changes, within both application development and operations. Tha...
In his Opening Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, John Considine, General Manager of IBM Cloud Infrastructure, will lead you through the exciting evolution of the cloud. He'll look at this major disruption from the perspective of technology, business models, and what this means for enterprises of all sizes. John Considine is General Manager of Cloud Infrastructure Services at IBM. In that role he is responsible for leading IBM’s public cloud infrastructure including strategy, development, and offering ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of enterprise storage for the hybrid cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere delivers a more modern architectural approach to storage that doesn't require the overprovisioning of storage capacity to achieve performance, overspending on expensive storage media for inactive data or the overbui...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale is the leading provider of Software-Defined Servers that bring flexibility to modern data centers by right-sizing servers on the fly to fit any data set or workload. TidalScale’s award-winning inverse hypervisor technology combines multiple commodity servers (including their ass...
SYS-CON Events announced today that N3N will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. N3N’s solutions increase the effectiveness of operations and control centers, increase the value of IoT investments, and facilitate real-time operational decision making. N3N enables operations teams with a four dimensional digital “big board” that consolidates real-time live video feeds alongside IoT sensor data a...