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Tracing the Life of an HTTP Request:

HTTP request processing with IIS 6.0 and ASP.NET 1.1

The deep permeation of the World Wide Web into the life of the common man has lent itself to a variety of uses, most notably as a backbone for business-to-consumer (B2C) communication, creating a new business model called e-commerce. This article traces the lifetime of an HTTP request from its inception inside a Web browser to its interception by IIS 6.0, its processing by ASP.NET 1.1, and an HTTP response being sent back to the browser.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the foundation of the Web. HTTP was invented by Tim Berners-Lee at the CERN Labs and is documented in RFC 2068 (www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2068/rfc2068). HTTP is a request/response, text-based, stateless protocol used to communicate between a Web client (browser) and a Web server.

A typical Web interaction starts when the browser sends an HTTP request to the Web server. The Web server listens for requests, generally over TCP port 80. After receiving the request, the Web server identifies the resource associated with the request, processes application logic identified by that resource, and returns an HTTP response that may consist of text or binary data.

As you can see, this communication process requires only that the user have a browser to request a resource from a remote Web server. This zero-footprint install and the ability to access the remote resource from anywhere over the Internet are the two main factors in the success of this model.

IIS 6.0 is the latest offering from Microsoft in the Web server domain. Along with the application services provided by ASP.NET 1.1, it stakes a claim for the most reliable, scalable, secure, and manageable HTTP request processing engine available today.

A Simple HTTP Request/Response Dialog
Let us look at an example of a simple HTTP request/response dialogue. Suppose a file called ILoveHttp.htm is deployed in the root directory of your Web server and is made accessible via the URL http://www.example.org/ILoveHttp.htm.

The file contains some simple HTML:

<html>
<body>
<h1> I love HTTP! </h1>
<body>
</html>

Typing http://www.example.org/ ILoveHttp.htm in the address bar of the browser (in this case Internet Explorer 6.0) would generate an HTTP request that would look something like:

GET /ILoveHttp.htm HTTP 1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Language: en-us
Connection: Keep-Alive
Host: www.example.org
User-Agent: Mozilla 4.0 (compatible;
MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate

The first line of the request is called the request line, which includes the method (GET), the resource path (/ILoveHttp.htm), and the HTTP version (HTTP/1.1). After the request line come the header lines. The HTTP headers provide additional information required to process the request, such as the language and encoding supported by the Web browser. Notice the blank line after the headers. This line separates the headers from the body. This request does not have a body because it uses the GET method. A body is only appropriate if the request uses the POST method.

Assuming that ILoveHttp.htm was found inside the root directory of the Web server and it had the requisite read permissions, the response that the Web server sends would look something like:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Microsoft-IIS/6.0
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2003 06:45:23
GMT
Content-Length: 57
Content-Type: text/html
Cache-control: private
<html>
<body>
<h1> I love HTTP! </h1>
<body>
</html>

The first line of the response, called the status line, contains the HTTP version used for the response, the status code (200), and the reason phrase. After the status line come the header lines. The headers in the HTTP response provide additional information about the message like its MIME content type and its content length in bytes. The header lines are followed by an empty line, after which comes the body of the response.

You can find more about HTTP request and response header fields at Microsoft.

The Web Server: IIS 6.0
IIS 6.0 is an HTTP, SMTP, FTP, and NNTP server all in one. It is available on all editions of Windows 2003. In this article I will discuss only the Web server capabilities of IIS 6.0. As a Web server, IIS 6.0 enables quick and easy deployment of Web sites and provides the platform to build powerful Web applications using ASP.NET 1.1.

IIS 6.0 is capable of hosting multiple Web sites in a single installation. A Web site is a collection of Web applications and is uniquely identified by a host name, a port number, and a host header. A Web application is a collection of Web resources (text and binary files) that resides inside a virtual directory of a Web site. Figure 1 shows a high-level logical architecture of IIS 6.0.

 
Figure 1

The details of the various components are as follows.

HTTP.sys
HTTP.sys is the operating system's HTTP protocol stack and is implemented as a kernel mode component. It listens to requests, parses them, and then routes them to the appropriate request queue. Each request queue corresponds to a particular application pool.

Since no user code runs as part of HTTP.sys, it is isolated from any failure in application code. Even if a Web application crashes, HTTP.sys continues to receive and queue requests for that application, ensuring that the end user's experience is not interrupted. Also, since HTTP.sys runs as part of kernel code, it is very efficient.

After a request has been processed appropriately, HTTP.sys caches and returns the response to the Web browser.

Application Pools
An application pool is a logical grouping of Web applications hosted inside IIS 6.0. Each application pool can have zero or more Web applications in it. Each application pool serves one request queue maintained by HTTP.sys, as illustrated by the dashed arrows in Figure 1. Application pools can be created using the IIS Manager (inetmgr.exe).

Web Server Administration and Monitoring Component
The Web server administration and monitoring component (AKA Web service) is a user mode configuration and process manager that manages server operations and monitors the execution of application code. Like HTTP.sys, this component does not run any user code as part of itself, therefore remaining isolated from application failures.

This component (iisw3adm.dll) gets loaded as a nonshared service host process (svchost.exe). The services provided by the Web service are:

  • Configuration: During initialization, the Web service reads the inmemory copy of metabase.xml (the IIS 6.0 configuration file) and initializes HTTP.sys with the appropriate request/routing information.
  • Fault tolerance: If the Web service sees a failed application, it recycles and restarts the associated worker process automatically.
  • Worker process management: The user can configure when a worker process will be started, recycled, or restarted. This information can be configured using the IIS Manager.

    Worker Process
    Each application pool is serviced by one dedicated IIS 6.0 worker process (w3wp.exe) per processor. Having separate worker processes for separate application pools provides process isolation to the Web applications. This means that a malfunctioning Web application in an application pool has no effect on Web applications in other application pools.

    The worker process runs a Web core component (w3core.dll). This component is responsible for loading the ASP.NET runtime (aspnet_isapi.dll) in case the HTTP request happens to be for an ASP.NET resource.

    The worker process fetches requests directly from the kernel request queues maintained by HTTP.sys. This obviates the need for user-mode interprocess communication, making the fetch process very efficient.

    The worker process runs as a network service – a Windows account with bare minimum privileges.

    ASP.NET 1.1: The Application Server
    ASP.NET is an extensible Web programming model that works with IIS 6.0 and assists developers in producing dynamic Web applications. ASP.NET is installed when IIS 6.0 is configured as an application server.

    When IIS receives a request for an ASP.NET resource, it hands over the processing of the request to the ASP.NET ISAPI filter (aspnet_isapi. dll). The mapping of resource extensions to ISAPI filters can be configured using the IIS Manager. ASP.NET protects applications belonging to the same application pool from each other by processing each of them in separate AppDomains.

    After a request is handed over by IIS 6.0 to ASP.NET it is run through a sequence of events commonly referred to as the HTTP pipeline.

    The first thing that ASP.NET does after receiving a request is to instantiate an object of an undocumented type that inherits from the HttpWorkerRequest (System. Web.HttpWorkerRequest) abstract class. This object is initialized with information from the HTTP request.

    Next, an instance of the HttpRuntime (System.Web.HttpRuntime) class is created. This class is a singleton in the scope of the Web application; that is, only one instance of the class exists per application (or AppDomain). The HttpWorker Request object is then passed to the static ProcessRequest method of the HttpRuntime class. The HttpR untime class provides a set of runtime services to the ASP.NET applications.

    The ProcessRequest method of the HttpRuntime class carries out the following sequence of steps.
    1.  Create an instance of the HttpContext (System.Web.HttpContext) class. This object acts like a memento for the request. It stays with the request throughout its life inside the ASP.NET HTTP pipeline and request-specific information can be persisted within it. A partial (pun intended) definition of HttpContext is shown in Listing 1.

    Notice that the constructor of the HttpContext is passed the HttpWorkerRequest object.

    The constructor of HttpContext instantiates a bunch of useful objects of types like HttpRequest (System.Web.HttpRequest), HttpResponse (System. Web.HttpResponse), Http ServerUtililty (System.Web. HttpServerUtility), and HttpSessionState (System. Web.HttpSessionState), and then initializes them with the information available from the HttpWorkerRequest instance passed to it.

    2.  Next, the ProcessRequest method calls the static GetApplication Instance method of the Http ApplicationFactory (System. Web.HttpApplicationFactory) class to get an instance of HttpApplication (System.Web.HttpApplication).

    The runtime maintains a pool of HttpApplication objects. The GetApplicationInstance method either gets the HttpApplication object from this pool (if available) or instantiates a new one. The signature of the GetApplicationInstance method is:

    static IHttpHandler
    GetApplicationInstance
    (HttpContext context);

    If the Web application has a global.asax file in its virtual directory the object returned by GetApplicationInstance is of a type derived from HttpApplication. This class extends the HttpApplication class by the code defined in global. asax.

    Now that the HttpApplication object has been created, it reads the machine-level configuration files (machine.config and web.config) and loads the modules required to pre- or postprocess the request. Modules are classes that implement the System.Web.IHttpModule interface, and are compiled and placed in the bin directory of the application. The section of configuration files that configures the modules looks like:

    <httpModules>
    <add name="OutputCache"
    type="System.Web.Caching.OutputCacheModule"/>
    <!— More like these ‡
    </httpModules>

    3.  Next, the ProcessRequest method calls the BeginProcessRequest (System.Web.IAsyncHandler.Be ginProcessRequest) method of the HttpApplication object. Using the information found in the <httpHandlers> section of the configuration files and the URL of the request, the BeginProcess Request method tries to locate the appropriate handler for the resource requested. The <httpHandlers> section of the configuration files, which maps URLs to handlers or handler factories, looks like that shown in Listing 2.

    In <httpHandlers> file extensions (or filenames) are mapped to either HTTP handlers (classes that implement the System.Web. IHttpHandler interface) or an HTTP handler factory (classes that implement the System. Web.IHttp Handler Factory interface). If the mapping is to an HTTP handler factory, the HttpApplication class uses the GetHandler method to get a handle to the HTTP handler.

    The HttpApplication class also fires a bunch of events like BeginRequest, Authenticate Request, and AuthorizeRequest. These events can be handled either in some of the HTTP modules or in global.asax.

    When the HttpApplication object charged with servicing a particular request invokes the GetHandler method on the System.Web.UI.PageHandler Factory, what it gets is an instance of a class derived from the Page (System.Web.UI.Page) class. The Page class implements the IHttpHandler interface. Next, the ProcessRequest (IHttpHand ler.ProcessRequest) method of the Page object is called. This method – which does the actual request processing – uses the page's Response property to access the HttpResponse object associated with the request. The Http Response object has several overloaded Write methods that give the Page object access to the response stream back to the browser. The Page object has access to the request's HttpContext object through its Context property.

    Conclusion
    In this article I have shown you the framework that IIS 6.0 and ASP.NET 1.1 provide to process HTTP requests. I hope you enjoyed reading it.

    References

  • Technical Overview of Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0: www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/techinfo/overview/iis.mspx
  • Onion, F. (2003). Essential ASP.NET Programming. Addison-Wesley.
  • Esposito, D. (2003) Programming ASP.NET. Microsoft Press.
  • More Stories By Mujtaba Syed

    Mujtaba Syed works as a software architect with Marlabs Inc. He is an MCSD
    (early achiever) and loves to speak about and write on Microsoft .NET. Mujtaba has been programming the Microsoft .NET Framework since its beta 1 release. His current interests are focused on Longhorn.

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