Welcome!

Weblogic Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Michael Meiner, Michael Bushong, Avi Rosenthal

Related Topics: Industrial IoT

Industrial IoT: Article

Patent Mining Using XML

Patent Mining Using XML

We developed a "patent mining" tool for our company utilizing XML. Corporate leaders wanted to provide company-wide browser access to our corporate patent portfolio as well as in-depth analysis of our patent data. They saw this as a way to assist our company in strategic and investment decisions and to encourage innovation and collaboration.

The highly structured format of patent data led easily to a hierarchical representation in XML. The use of XML made programming simpler. We only had to load the XML document containing the patents into a browser, so there was no need to extract from a database. In addition, we were able to present the same XML data in multiple ways, using various XSL stylesheets. XML provided a very straightforward, inexpensive, and effective way to meet this requirement for patent mining.

Packaged software is available that imposes structure on a company's content, making it easily searchable and capable of being displayed in various ways in a browser. For this application, however, the volume is relatively low; our company currently has only a few hundred patents totaling about 10MB of data. The content is fairly static; the issued patent data rarely changes, and relatively few new patents are added each month. And the number of concurrent users will remain low.

Because of these factors, we decided we could safely avoid purchasing any content management, database, or other software.

Implementation Steps
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides downloadable access to all patents that have been issued. We wrote a script to access the USPTO Web site, search for our company's patents, and then download them. Once we had them all together, we identified the consistent structure throughout. Listing 1 shows the XDR Schema we created to model the XML markup (all code references in this article can be downloaded at www. sys-con.com/xml/source.cfm).

The header section of a patent contains field data such as patent number, title, issue date, and assignee. The header data also includes repeating groups such as inventors, references cited, and classes. The detailed body of the patent, which includes the "claim" of the patent and a lengthy description, consists largely of unstructured text.

After downloading the patents, analyzing their structure, and creating a schema from them, we were ready to mark them up with XML. To expedite the markup process we wrote a Perl script to tag the structured fields with XML. This was fairly easy to parse with Perl due to the rigid structure of the data.

Figure 1 shows the first page of a patent as it appears on the USPTO site. Listing 2 is the same patent data after being downloaded and marked up with XML. Figure 2 shows the same patent again as displayed in our tool using XSL; it's deliberately similar to the USPTO presentation because we intended to duplicate that look and feel.

The home page of our application lists the critical information for all current patents: patent number, issue date, title, inventor. From this a user is able to click on a patent number and see the detail of an individual patent, such as the one shown in Listing 2. We also created a page that provides field searches and a keyword search of all corporate patents. We used XPath queries to perform the field searches; for keyword search we used regular expression pattern matching. A citation analysis diagram displays which patents reference a patent and which are referenced by a patent. A class distribution histogram groups the patents according to the USPTO classification scheme.

Mining Unstructured Data
Patent mining starts with searchable access to the patent data, but more in-depth analysis requires mining of the unstructured claims and description data in the body of the patent. We ran various cluster analysis programs against the unstructured data and converted the output of these programs into XML. We then displayed the data in various ways using XSL. For example:

  • Relevance matrix diagram: Uses an algorithm that analyzes overlap in word content and clusters the content accordingly
  • Optimized cluster analysis diagram: Clusters the patents into 20 categories based on word usage
  • Molecule diagram: Shows the clustering in molecules connected to each other based on relevance
Design Decisions
We originally planned to make the patent mining tool a client-side application, which seemed like the simplest and most straightforward route. A client-side application involves downloading the XML data onto each desktop browser, parsing the XML, caching the data in memory, and then transforming it by XSL, all on the client. Some functions, such as keyword search, require loading all 10MB of the data onto the desktop, which became a performance bottleneck. (After the first time, however, the data was cached.)

An additional client-side drawback was that to make effective use of XSLT, each client had to have XSLT installed. Yet many Microsoft Internet Explorer users don't yet have MSXML parser 3.0 or above, which is required for XSLT. So we had to backtrack and use the more limited functionality of XSL (a standard component of IE 4.0 and above) on the client desktop.

We'll soon be converting our application to server-side processing, wherein all the processing takes place on the server and only the resultant HTML is sent to the client. Then we won't have a bandwidth/download problem, since the 10MB of data remains on the server. As there's also a persistent DOM (loaded once into cache) ready for processing on the server, performance and scalability are increased. And the processing is no longer browser-dependent. We don't need to be concerned about whether the client Internet Explorer can handle XSLT, or whether the client browser may even be Netscape, which has limited XML support.

*  *  *

For more complete patent mining functionality, including more analytical tools, we may still buy packaged software. If we decide to expand the scope of patents to include all similar patents issued by the USPTO, which could number in the tens of thousands, we'll definitely need a database. In the short term, however, we have a useful application founded on XML that our company can use to perform basic patent mining.

More Stories By Joseph Moeller

Joseph Moeller is a consultant specialist, working in the Enterprise Information Technology division of EDS. One initiative of EIT is Knowledge Management, which addresses the identification, growth, and reuse of the enterprise's intellectual captial. Joseph Moeller has worked for EDS for 20 years, and currently works in EDS Austin Innovation Lab, which has made XML an important part of their strategic direction.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architec...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration an...
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
No hype cycles or predictions of a gazillion things here. IoT is here. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, an Associate Partner of Analytics, IoT & Cybersecurity at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He also discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data...
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
We are given a desktop platform with Java 8 or Java 9 installed and seek to find a way to deploy high-performance Java applications that use Java 3D and/or Jogl without having to run an installer. We are subject to the constraint that the applications be signed and deployed so that they can be run in a trusted environment (i.e., outside of the sandbox). Further, we seek to do this in a way that does not depend on bundling a JRE with our applications, as this makes downloads and installations rat...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
DX World EXPO, LLC, a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
Digital Transformation (DX) is not a "one-size-fits all" strategy. Each organization needs to develop its own unique, long-term DX plan. It must do so by realizing that we now live in a data-driven age, and that technologies such as Cloud Computing, Big Data, the IoT, Cognitive Computing, and Blockchain are only tools. In her general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Rebecca Wanta explained how the strategy must focus on DX and include a commitment from top management to create great IT jobs, monitor ...
"Cloud Academy is an enterprise training platform for the cloud, specifically public clouds. We offer guided learning experiences on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud and all the surrounding methodologies and technologies that you need to know and your teams need to know in order to leverage the full benefits of the cloud," explained Alex Brower, VP of Marketing at Cloud Academy, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clar...
The IoT Will Grow: In what might be the most obvious prediction of the decade, the IoT will continue to expand next year, with more and more devices coming online every single day. What isn’t so obvious about this prediction: where that growth will occur. The retail, healthcare, and industrial/supply chain industries will likely see the greatest growth. Forrester Research has predicted the IoT will become “the backbone” of customer value as it continues to grow. It is no surprise that retail is ...