Welcome!

Weblogic Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, Michael Meiner, Michael Bushong, Avi Rosenthal

Related Topics: @DevOpsSummit, Containers Expo Blog, @DXWorldExpo

@DevOpsSummit: Article

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) | @DevOpsSummit #DevOps #WebPerf

The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research

Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1)
By Nilabh Mishra

How important is data compression? The sharing of information in a fast and efficient manner has been an area of constant study and research. Companies like Google and Facebook have spent a lot of time and effort trying to develop faster and better compression algorithms. Compression algorithms have existed since the ’70s and the ongoing research to have better algorithms proves just how important compression is for the Internet and for all of us.

The Need for Data Compression
The World Wide Web (WWW) has undergone a lot of changes since it was made available to the public in 1991. Believe it or not, the copy of the world’s first website can still be browsed here. Back then, webpages were very simple. Today, they are increasingly more complex and there is an evident need to have compression algorithms that are lossless, fast, and efficient.

There are several best practices that help optimize page load times. Here is a blog from that discusses webpage optimization. In this article, we will spend some time understanding the basics of compression and how it works. We will also cover a new type of compression method called “Brotli” in the second part of this blog.

Encoding and Data Compression
Let’s start by understanding what data encoding and compression are:

The word “compression” comes from the Latin word compressare, which means to press together. “Encoding” is the process of placing a sequence of characters in a specialized format that allows efficient data storage as well as transmission. Per Wikipedia: “Data compression involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

Compression plays a key role when it comes to saving bandwidth and speeding up your site. Modern day websites involve a lot of HTTP requests and responses between the client (the browser) and the server to serve a webpage. With an overall increase in the number of HTTP requests and responses, it becomes important to ensure that these transfers are taking place at a fast and efficient rate.

HTTP works on a request-response model, as demonstrated below:

In this case, we are not using any compression method to compress the response being sent by the server.

  • The browser sends an HTTP request asking for the Index.html page
  • The server looks for the requested file and responds with the requested resource and a 200 OK HTTP status message
  • The browser receives the server’s response and renders the page

As we can see, in this case there is no compression involved. The server responded with a 300 KB file (index.html page). If the file size was bigger, it would have taken more time for the response to be sent on the wire and this would have increased the overall page load time. Please note that we are currently looking only at a single HTTP response. Modern websites receive hundreds of such HTTP responses from the server to render a webpage.

The image below shows the same HTTP request – response between the browser and the server, but in this case, we use compression to reduce the size of the response being sent by the server to the browser.

Today, complex and dynamic websites generate hundreds of HTTP requests/responses. This made it important to have a system which would ensure fast and efficient data transfer between the server and the browser. This is when compression algorithms like Deflate and Gzip came into existence.

Introduction to Gzip
Gzip is a compression method that is used to make files smaller for storage and faster transmission over the network. Gzip is one of the most popular, powerful, and effective ways of compressing data and it can reduce the file size by up to 70%.

Gzip is based on the DEFLATE algorithm, which in turn is a combination of LZ77 and Huffman coding. Understanding how LZ77 works is essential to understand how compression methods like DEFLATE and Gzip work.

LZ77
Developed in the late ’70s by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv, the LZ77 method of compression looks for sequences of characters that recur in a text. It performs compression by replacing the recurring occurrences of strings using pointers that backreference identical strings, previously encountered in the text, that needs to be compressed.

The pointer or backreference is of the form <relative jump, length>, where relative jump signifies how many bytes are there between the current occurrence of the string and its last occurrence and length is the total number of identical bytes found.

Now let us understand this better with the help of an example. Assume, there is a text file with the following text:

As idle as a painted ship, upon a painted ocean.

In this file, we see the following strings: “as” and “painted” occurring multiple times. What LZ77 method does is, it replaces multiple occurrences of strings with the notation: <relative jump, length>.

So using LZ77, the text will get encoded in the following way:

As idle <8,2> a painted ship, upon a <21,7> ocean.

To encode the text, we took the following steps:

  1. Looked at the string and tried to find occurrences of the same “string” or “substrings”.
  2. Replaced multiple occurrences of a string with the notation: <relative jump, length>; The two strings: “as” and “painted” were replaced the multiple occurrences of the strings with <relative jump, length>.
  3. The string “painted” which would have earlier occupied 7 bytes (i.e. the number of characters in the word: “painted”) X 1 byte = 7 bytes was compressed to occupy only 2 bytes. 2 bytes or 16 bits is the size of the pointer or backreference.

HUFFMAN Coding
Huffman Coding is another lossless data compression algorithm. The frequency of occurrence of a string in a text file or pixels in images form the basis of Huffman coding. To get a deeper understanding of this algorithm, read this detailed tutorial that clearly explains how Huffman Coding works.

All modern browsers support Gzip compression for HTTP Requests. With Gzip, one of the most important question is what to compress. It works best with text-based resources like static HTML, CSS files and JavaScript resources but is not very efficient for already compressed resources such as Images. To support Gzip, the server must be configured to allow gzip compression.

The image above shows the impact Gzip compression can have on a text-based resource like a JavaScript file. In this case, we ran 2 instant tests using Catchpoint to the URL: https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.2.1.js.

For the first test run, we did not specify any encoding to be used by passing the custom header: Accept-Encoding: identity along with the request. The first image shows no Content-Encoding being passed for the request.

In the second image, the browser is sending Accept-Encoding:zip, for which the server is sending zipped file as the response.

We can clearly see how Gzip can drastically compress the files to improve data transmission rate over the wire.

Catchpoint’s Scheduled tests also highlight the difference between compressed and not-compressed content loading on webpages.

In the screenshot above, we see the difference in downloaded bytes for static content (CSS, JavaScript) when using G-zip vs. when not using any encoding.

Brotli Compression
A new compression method called Brotli was introduced not too long ago. The Brotli compression algorithm is optimized for the web and specifically for small text documents. We will discuss more about this compression method and what is has to offer to the World Wide Web community in the second part of the article.

The post Compression: Making the Big Smaller and Faster (Part 1) appeared first on Catchpoint's Blog - Web Performance Monitoring.

More Stories By Mehdi Daoudi

Catchpoint radically transforms the way businesses manage, monitor, and test the performance of online applications. Truly understand and improve user experience with clear visibility into complex, distributed online systems.

Founded in 2008 by four DoubleClick / Google executives with a passion for speed, reliability and overall better online experiences, Catchpoint has now become the most innovative provider of web performance testing and monitoring solutions. We are a team with expertise in designing, building, operating, scaling and monitoring highly transactional Internet services used by thousands of companies and impacting the experience of millions of users. Catchpoint is funded by top-tier venture capital firm, Battery Ventures, which has invested in category leaders such as Akamai, Omniture (Adobe Systems), Optimizely, Tealium, BazaarVoice, Marketo and many more.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architec...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration an...
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
No hype cycles or predictions of a gazillion things here. IoT is here. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, an Associate Partner of Analytics, IoT & Cybersecurity at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He also discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data...
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
We are given a desktop platform with Java 8 or Java 9 installed and seek to find a way to deploy high-performance Java applications that use Java 3D and/or Jogl without having to run an installer. We are subject to the constraint that the applications be signed and deployed so that they can be run in a trusted environment (i.e., outside of the sandbox). Further, we seek to do this in a way that does not depend on bundling a JRE with our applications, as this makes downloads and installations rat...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
DX World EXPO, LLC, a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
Digital Transformation (DX) is not a "one-size-fits all" strategy. Each organization needs to develop its own unique, long-term DX plan. It must do so by realizing that we now live in a data-driven age, and that technologies such as Cloud Computing, Big Data, the IoT, Cognitive Computing, and Blockchain are only tools. In her general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Rebecca Wanta explained how the strategy must focus on DX and include a commitment from top management to create great IT jobs, monitor ...
"Cloud Academy is an enterprise training platform for the cloud, specifically public clouds. We offer guided learning experiences on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud and all the surrounding methodologies and technologies that you need to know and your teams need to know in order to leverage the full benefits of the cloud," explained Alex Brower, VP of Marketing at Cloud Academy, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clar...
The IoT Will Grow: In what might be the most obvious prediction of the decade, the IoT will continue to expand next year, with more and more devices coming online every single day. What isn’t so obvious about this prediction: where that growth will occur. The retail, healthcare, and industrial/supply chain industries will likely see the greatest growth. Forrester Research has predicted the IoT will become “the backbone” of customer value as it continues to grow. It is no surprise that retail is ...