Click here to close now.


Weblogic Authors: Elizabeth White, Michael Meiner, Michael Bushong, Avi Rosenthal

Related Topics: Weblogic

Weblogic: Article

Monitoring and Controlling WebLogic Servers with WLST

Writing scripts merged with Java is more natural than ant

Scripting languages have recently garnered a bit of attention. With the arrival of Groovy and Jython, writing scripts merged with Java is more natural than Ant. Using XML to call Java methods has always been forced, mostly because it's hard to express flow, conditional expressions, and custom Java code in a markup language (although things have improved a lot since Ant 1.5).

Why a scripting language? Well, if I have a completely blown IDE for Java programming, using Jython or Groovy can look backwards. You can code in fewer lines (though not much less), but I want the imports written automatically. I want compiler warnings while coding and I need refactorings. Plug-ins for these languages are still outside of Java IDE's capabilities.

But there are times where you just don't have a full IDE configured. Think about jobs that should be automated to be agile, or about server administrators. These people don't have anything like Eclipse, and their work can't be done in advance. You can't code for system administration. This is where tools like WLST come in and make the world a better place.

WLST (WebLogic Scripting Tool) is a Jython module that helps write scripts to administer and modify a server installation remotely. It comes in two flavors: offline, which can configure a server instance that doesn't exist yet, and online, which needs a WebLogic server to connect to. Both versions are in beta and are poorly documented, but they promise to improve and will be in some future WebLogic release.

We're going to focus on the online version here, because its functionalities are more complete than the offline version.

Automating Server Configuration:
Let's start by getting rid of that nasty WebLogic server configuration. Your typical development team replicates the same config in several hosts, changing only a couple of parameters such as the IP, hostname, and TCP port. In a relatively typical project, the process must be executed for each developer's PC, integration test host, and production. Ant tasks resolve great in this context, but it's not prepared to handle things like custom JMX beans.

We're going to create and launch the server, configure it, and do a shutdown, using a mixture of ant and WLST. First, let's create the server in Listing 1. For simplicity's sake, we're going to use the ant task here because combining WLST offline and online would mess things up.

I check the properties because when you deploy on more than one brand of app server it's easy to use the wrong file (see Listing 2).

We have just removed the whole domain directory, created a new clean one, and left the server running, so now in Listing 3 we can connect and configure it.

The server stop is necessary because some setting changes, i.e., security authenticators, need a graceful shutdown to be stored on disk. Omitting this step would kill the server in a hard way at the end of the ant script

Note: the WLST task is forked, and so, if WLST finds an error in your script, ant still will say "build successful," something that might confuse the person launching the script.

Let's split the WLST script into two parts to reuse as much of it as possible for administration tasks later. I have used the great examples enclosed with the WLST bundle and the output of the saveDomain() command as starting points. The saveDomain() generated script isn't very polished, but it serves to indicate the tool's possibilities (see Listing 4).

The loadProperties task converts all the entries in the file to Jython variables. We've used the first methods of a Jython class to administrate the WebLogic server instance. It can easily be extended to create and remove DataSources, a JMS environment, and even security realms.

MBean Methods
What you have seen is a way of creating and configuring MBeans (there's another way that will be explained in the next section). The downside is that you have to know the attributes and methods supported, and WLST doesn't document them. How can I guess which methods are available?

Well, the first way that comes to mind is going to the config.xml file or the web console and assume the attribute names hasn't changed. If we have a decent IDE we also can open the MBean interface class and see what's in there (it's the same as the MBean name, ending with 'MBean'). It won't show you code, but you can check which methods are available.

I prefer connecting to and checking the contents of the package For example, if we go to the ServerMBean class, we can see two interesting and not particularly well-known methods isJDBCLoggingEnabled() and setJDBCLoggingEnabled(). We can check them by opening the wlst interactive shell as laid out below:


wls:/mydomain/config> server=home.getAdminMBean('myserver', 'Server')
wls:/mydomain/config> server.setJDBCLoggingEnabled(1)
wls:/mydomain/config> server.isJDBCLoggingEnabled()

('home' is a variable of type AdminMbeanHomeImpl and can be studied as any other MBean; the only problem is that there's no javadoc available since it's an internal class).

If these last three commands aren't easily understood, don't worry. The shell will be covered in the next section.

Command Line System Administration
A system administrator can also administer the WebLogic server instance manually by using the interactive shell. The advantage here is you don't have to know a priori the MBean interfaces when trying to modify the system config. For this part, you have to include weblogic.jar, jython.jar, and wist.jar in the classpath and start the main class weblogic.WLST, which is the interactive console.

Keep it mind that this is Jython. Quotes and double quotes are used for string delimitation; instantiation doesn't need a new operator (as a matter of fact it's a syntax error); semicolons aren't required because each line ends with a carriage return; and variables don't have to be declared (a la Unix shell scripts). If that's not enough for you, please refer to the Python and WLST docs.

We need to start connecting to a WebLogic server instance. We can choose to use the AdminTool script developed before, or connect manually:





connect('weblogic', 'weblogic', "t3://localhost:7001)

Connecting to weblogic server instance running at t3:// as
username weblogic ...

Successfully connected to Admin Server 'myserver' that belongs to domain 'mydomain' is system output and should be formatted as code.

Now we can start playing with it. With WLST, the JMX tree can be traversed as a Unix filesystem, where the JMX MBeans are directories and its attributes are files. Keep in mind the Python syntax all the way through, and remember that WLST still doesn't recognize wildcards. That's the reason why we're going to omit most of the ls() output (see Listing 5).

We could have also gotten that far on a single cd('/JDBCConnectionPools/MyPool') command. WLST always remembers the cmo (Current Managed Object), the MBean corresponding to the current 'folder' we're browsing. So, these commands are equivalent from the practical point-of-view:


wls:/mydomain/config/JDBCConnectionPools/MyPool> cmo
[Caching Stub]Proxy for mydomain:Name=MyPool,Type=JDBCConnectionPool
wls:/mydomain/config/JDBCConnectionPools/MyPool> pwd()

Now, let's change a couple of random properties (see Listing 6). Remember that Python doesn't have boolean attributes. The server can return true and false (since it runs Java), but you can't assign those values. Don't worry, though; if you check it through the WebLogic console, your boolean value of 1 has been interpreted correctly by the server.

You could have gotten the same result using the equivalent techniques shown in the section above about "Automating Server Configuration." I find this way easier for systems administrators, and the first way for developers preparing scripts. It just fits better in each different kind of toolset: system administrators are more used to Unix shells, and developers feel more comfortable with the "smell" of Java.

Managing the Server Configuration Example: A Real Case
It's common to need to peep inside those nasty JDBC calls. One sometimes really wants to be able to see the conversation between the WebLogic server and the database, and why in hell the query returns 0 rows, or profile performance, okay. Logging the JDBC calls (not just the SQL, please, but the parameters too) with a hot-plug capability should be nice. Wanna give it a try?

First, let's download the p6spy JDBC driver. It is a JDBC wrapper that will log anything that goes through it. To configure it, put the p6spy.jar and the directory containing the in the server classpath (don't forget the directory, or WebLogic will complain as if the JAR file were not present). Tune the to your needs.

What we want to achieve is the creation of two Connection Pools, one directly with Oracle JDBC driver and the other through p6spy. Then, we will change the datasource to point to the p6spy datasource without restarting the server (if we believe the Web console interface, this change does not need a reboot).

We will start by executing the administration script developed earlier:


wls:/(offline)> execfile('')

Connecting to weblogic server instance running at t3:// as
username weblogic ...

Successfully connected to Admin Server 'myserver' that belongs to domain 'mydomain'. It also is system output and should be formatted accordingly.

We can create the Connection Pool now.


wls:/mydomain/config> admin.createPool("P6SPY Connection Pool",
JDBCConnectionPool with name 'P6SPY Connection Pool'
has been created successfully.

In the WebLogic console we can see the following (well, the WebLogic log line will only appear if you have the 'debug to console' option activated):


<28-feb-2005 20H18' GMT> <Info> <JDBC> <BEA-001132>
<Initialized statement cache of size "10"
for connection in pool "P6SPY Connection Pool".>
1109621928226|0|1|statement|SELECT 1 FROM DUAL|SELECT 1 FROM DUAL
1109621928242|0|1|statement|SELECT 1 FROM DUAL|SELECT 1 FROM DUAL

which shows the connection pool initializing and new connections test. We'll suppose that the dataSource doesn't exist yet. If we were clean, we would have foreseen it and created the method in our AdminTool class, but we can still do it via the interactive shell in Listing 7.

We have started directing the datasource to the P6SPY connection pool, so you can check your application and see that it really logs JDBC statements; try it with a test case. Now, there are two ways to disable the logging. Since we have the datasource in a Jython variable, we can do it the 'Java' way:



or, the 'system administrator' way shown in Listing 8.

WLST is an awesome tool capable of boosting your application server configuration and remote maintenance. It still lacks a find/locate option (for the not uncommon case where one needs to find a configuration option and can't recall its location) with wildcard support. But when it finally gets bundled with WebLogic 9 it's sure to be useful.


  • The p6spy open source driver:
  • Download WLST online:
  • Download WLST offline:
  • Strategies for WebLogic domain configuration:
  • Martin Fowler on scripting languages for complex tasks not easily achieved with XML:
  • More Stories By Ignacio Coloma

    Ignacio Coloma is a J2EE architect at InfoInnova. For the last six years he has been developing applications for e-banking, air transport, e-government, and message processing systems. Currently he is extending J2EE applications with scripting languages.

    Comments (1) View Comments

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

    Most Recent Comments
    [email protected] 10/03/08 09:23:49 AM EDT

    Good article.
    Couldn't find the listings though.
    Are they missing ?

    @ThingsExpo Stories
    Cloud computing delivers on-demand resources that provide businesses with flexibility and cost-savings. The challenge in moving workloads to the cloud has been the cost and complexity of ensuring the initial and ongoing security and regulatory (PCI, HIPAA, FFIEC) compliance across private and public clouds. Manual security compliance is slow, prone to human error, and represents over 50% of the cost of managing cloud applications. Determining how to automate cloud security compliance is critical to maintaining positive ROI. Raxak Protect is an automated security compliance SaaS platform and ma...
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data shows "less than 10 percent of IoT developers are making enough to support a reasonably sized team....
    Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
    With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound cha...
    DevOps is about increasing efficiency, but nothing is more inefficient than building the same application twice. However, this is a routine occurrence with enterprise applications that need both a rich desktop web interface and strong mobile support. With recent technological advances from Isomorphic Software and others, rich desktop and tuned mobile experiences can now be created with a single codebase – without compromising functionality, performance or usability. In his session at DevOps Summit, Charles Kendrick, CTO and Chief Architect at Isomorphic Software, demonstrated examples of com...
    As organizations realize the scope of the Internet of Things, gaining key insights from Big Data, through the use of advanced analytics, becomes crucial. However, IoT also creates the need for petabyte scale storage of data from millions of devices. A new type of Storage is required which seamlessly integrates robust data analytics with massive scale. These storage systems will act as “smart systems” provide in-place analytics that speed discovery and enable businesses to quickly derive meaningful and actionable insights. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Paul Turner, Chief Marketing Officer at...
    In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
    In his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Bruce Swann, Senior Product Marketing Manager for Adobe Campaign, explored the key ingredients of cross-channel marketing in a digital world. Learn how the Adobe Marketing Cloud can help marketers embrace opportunities for personalized, relevant and real-time customer engagement across offline (direct mail, point of sale, call center) and digital (email, website, SMS, mobile apps, social networks, connected objects).
    We all know that data growth is exploding and storage budgets are shrinking. Instead of showing you charts on about how much data there is, in his General Session at 17th Cloud Expo, Scott Cleland, Senior Director of Product Marketing at HGST, showed how to capture all of your data in one place. After you have your data under control, you can then analyze it in one place, saving time and resources.
    The Internet of Everything is re-shaping technology trends–moving away from “request/response” architecture to an “always-on” Streaming Web where data is in constant motion and secure, reliable communication is an absolute necessity. As more and more THINGS go online, the challenges that developers will need to address will only increase exponentially. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Todd Greene, Founder & CEO of PubNub, exploreed the current state of IoT connectivity and review key trends and technology requirements that will drive the Internet of Things from hype to reality.
    Two weeks ago (November 3-5), I attended the Cloud Expo Silicon Valley as a speaker, where I presented on the security and privacy due diligence requirements for cloud solutions. Cloud security is a topical issue for every CIO, CISO, and technology buyer. Decision-makers are always looking for insights on how to mitigate the security risks of implementing and using cloud solutions. Based on the presentation topics covered at the conference, as well as the general discussions heard between sessions, I wanted to share some of my observations on emerging trends. As cyber security serves as a fou...
    With all the incredible momentum behind the Internet of Things (IoT) industry, it is easy to forget that not a single CEO wakes up and wonders if “my IoT is broken.” What they wonder is if they are making the right decisions to do all they can to increase revenue, decrease costs, and improve customer experience – effectively the same challenges they have always had in growing their business. The exciting thing about the IoT industry is now these decisions can be better, faster, and smarter. Now all corporate assets – people, objects, and spaces – can share information about themselves and thei...
    Continuous processes around the development and deployment of applications are both impacted by -- and a benefit to -- the Internet of Things trend. To help better understand the relationship between DevOps and a plethora of new end-devices and data please welcome Gary Gruver, consultant, author and a former IT executive who has led many large-scale IT transformation projects, and John Jeremiah, Technology Evangelist at Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), on Twitter at @j_jeremiah. The discussion is moderated by me, Dana Gardner, Principal Analyst at Interarbor Solutions.
    Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
    Discussions of cloud computing have evolved in recent years from a focus on specific types of cloud, to a world of hybrid cloud, and to a world dominated by the APIs that make today's multi-cloud environments and hybrid clouds possible. In this Power Panel at 17th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the importance of customers being able to use the specific technologies they need, through environments and ecosystems that expose their APIs to make true change and transformation possible.
    The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound effect on the world, and what should we expect to see over the next couple of years.
    The cloud. Like a comic book superhero, there seems to be no problem it can’t fix or cost it can’t slash. Yet making the transition is not always easy and production environments are still largely on premise. Taking some practical and sensible steps to reduce risk can also help provide a basis for a successful cloud transition. A plethora of surveys from the likes of IDG and Gartner show that more than 70 percent of enterprises have deployed at least one or more cloud application or workload. Yet a closer inspection at the data reveals less than half of these cloud projects involve production...
    Microservices are a very exciting architectural approach that many organizations are looking to as a way to accelerate innovation. Microservices promise to allow teams to move away from monolithic "ball of mud" systems, but the reality is that, in the vast majority of organizations, different projects and technologies will continue to be developed at different speeds. How to handle the dependencies between these disparate systems with different iteration cycles? Consider the "canoncial problem" in this scenario: microservice A (releases daily) depends on a couple of additions to backend B (re...
    Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Day 2 Keynote at 17th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, wil...
    PubNub has announced the release of BLOCKS, a set of customizable microservices that give developers a simple way to add code and deploy features for realtime apps.PubNub BLOCKS executes business logic directly on the data streaming through PubNub’s network without splitting it off to an intermediary server controlled by the customer. This revolutionary approach streamlines app development, reduces endpoint-to-endpoint latency, and allows apps to better leverage the enormous scalability of PubNub’s Data Stream Network.